By Eric P. Koehler David, W. Fowler
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Additional info for AGGREGATES IN SELFCONSOLIDATING CONCRETE
1999). Limestone filler increases the density of the paste, which is particularly important in improving the strength and transport properties in the interfacial transition zone. In cases where limestone filler reduces compressive strength, especially at relatively high cement replacement rates, the improvement in workability may permit the reduction in water content to offset the decrease in strength (Ghezal and Khayat 2002). Aside from ground limestone filers, alternative ground materials have also been utilized.
35) where x is cubic feet of water per sack of cement, a is absolute volume of cement in cubic feet per sack, ws is the specific weight of aggregate in pounds per cubic foot of absolute volume, w is the unit weight of aggregate in pounds per cubic foot of dry-rodded mixed aggregate, S is the aggregate surface area in square foot per cubic foot of dry-rodded mixed aggregate (neglecting the amount passing a No. 100 sieve), and N is the cubic feet of dry-rodded mixed aggregate per sack of cement. To use the equation, the water-cement ratio is selected for a given strength and the workability factor K is selected for the desired workability at that water-cement ratio.
Any reduction in workability is generally due to silica fume’s high fineness, which is offset at least partially by its spherical particle shape. According to Bache (1981 qtd. in Aitcin 1998) silica fume can improve workability because the spherical particles displace water molecules from the vicinity of cement grains so that entrapped water molecules between flocculated cement particles are freed. According to Park, Noh, and Park (2005), the high reactivity of silica fume particles can increase adsorption of HRWRA, which reduces the amount available in solution and on cement particles and, thereby, decreases workability.
AGGREGATES IN SELFCONSOLIDATING CONCRETE by Eric P. Koehler David, W. Fowler